The exact prevalence of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes is difficult to determine, because the data are based on self-report, and many people can not be recognized in the use of these drugs for fear of prosecution.
Among professional athletes and Olympians in the surveys revealed a high frequency of use of anabolic steroids. From 4 to 6% of high school students and senior pupils of 1-2% reported that at least once have used androgenic steroids. Similarly high rates of application of anabolic steroids in the studies were in other countries.
The prevalence of the use of anabolic steroids among girls increased from the 1980s. In a study published in 1993 found that about 1 million Americans at some periods of their lives prescribed anabolic steroids. The most egregious example of state-sponsored doping anabolic steroid was discovered in the former German Democratic Republic after the fall of the communist regime.
Although it is known that the abuse had been with a lot of anabolic steroids, the five most commonly used for this purpose anabolic steroids include testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolol, methandienone and metenolol. Reviews voluntarily recognized the use of drugs by athletes and bodybuilders show some typical models.
Intramuscular dosage forms of anabolic steroids used much more often than the forms for oral administration; approximately 80% of the athletes who report about the use of androgenic steroids, did separate intramuscular injections.
Combinations of anabolic steroids were used more often than single drugs. Typically, one or more androgenic steroid is administered at progressively increasing doses during the weeks that the practice is known as “loading”.
Athletes and bodybuilders use supraphysiological doses of testosterone or other androgenic steroids. In one study, 50% of users of anabolic steroids, reported the use of at least 500 mg of testosterone / week or the equivalent dose of another androgenic steroid; in another study, almost a quarter of people who use anabolic steroids, use 1000 mg testosterone weekly or equivalent dose of another androgenic steroid.
Many people who use anabolic steroids, abused Induject 250 (testosterone mix) other drugs that are perceived in the sports community as improving accretion, the shape of the muscles or performance.These additional agents include stimulants such as amphetamine, clenbuterol, ephedrine, and thyroxine, other anabolic agents, including growth hormone, IGF-1, insulin, drugs which are considered which reduce adverse effects, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), aromatase inhibitors or antagonists estrogens. Potential adverse effects of some other drugs may be more severe than that of androgenic steroids.
Anabolic steroids and sports results
Anabolic steroids increase muscle mass, arbitrary maximum voltage and power; the gain in muscle mass and dose-dependent voltage. That is why we can assume that these drugs improve performance in forms such as lifting weights (weightlifting), in which performance depends on the muscle tension. Not surprisingly, the reported high prevalence of the use of androgenic steroids among those involved in powerlifting. Androgenic steroids bodybuilders used to increase muscle mass and reduce fat mass, which provides a more pronounced muscle definition.
The use of anabolic steroids by athletes in sports requiring endurance – long-distance running and cycling, ill-founded, as it was not shown that androgens improve the limits of endurance, such as the lactate threshold. Anabolic steroids increase hemoglobin levels, which theoretically improves the oxygen-transporting capacity of the blood, but even this has not been shown in controlled trials. Experts hypothesize that anabolic steroids may allow athletes to train harder bpagodarya improve skeletal muscle regenerative response to injury and motivational effects (these hypotheses were not exactly tested).
The widespread use of anabolic steroids to baseball players and sprinters also can not be easily explained on the basis of the available data on the effects of androgenic steroids. The ability to hit the ball to send it at a speed of 100 miles / hour beyond the field, requires an extraordinary degree of coordination “hand-eye” – the ability to locate the ball in a certain point in space and send a bat in a precisely defined position with significant voltage and power. There is anecdotal evidence that anabolics reduce the reaction time by improving the neuromuscular transmission. Improved response time in combination with high voltage and power may potentially explain the perceived improvement in athletic performance players in baseball, although evidence to support this hypothesis is not enough.
Similarly sprinters participating in the running race for 100 meters, weight gain caused by androgen, could be considered as a counterproductive measure, as increased Injectable steroids body weight will increase the number of perfect work when moving the mass of the body against gravity and resistance along the treadmill. Then why legendary sprinters like Ben Jones used androgens? Again, improved response time, increased the psychological limit of motivational effects of androgens and the ability to train harder have been proposed as possible explanations without verifiable evidence.
Side effects of anabolic steroids
Systematic studies of the adverse effects of anabolic steroids among athletes and bodybuilders are rare. This research is a huge variability prevent the types of drugs, dose, frequency and duration, age of onset of application and the competing use of additional drugs. Moreover, the veracity of voluntary recognition of the use of drugs is always suspicious.
Surprisingly, the frequency of serious adverse effects associated with the use of anabolic steroids, was as low as about it and reported. Number of deaths has been described, due to sudden cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications among those who have used androgenic steroids; but these messages increasingly unlikely and not a causal relationship. Adverse effects associated with androgenic steroids, comprise factors deleterious alterations of the cardiovascular system, including marked reduction of HDL cholesterol, blood clotting factors, depression of spermatogenesis, resulting in impotence and infertility, and increased liver enzymes.
Changes in plasma lipids varied depending on dose, route of administration (oral or parenteral) whether androgen may be flavored or not. Thus, the 17-alkylated androgen nearomatiziruemy ingested, resulting in a marked reduction of high density cholesterol levels in blood plasma than parenteral administration of testosterone.Similarly rises in liver enzymes, liver tumors and hepatic purpura have been described by ingestion and 17-alkylated steroids androgenic rather than by parenteral administration of testosterone or its esters.
“Reactions of anger,” posted a message about the connection of anabolic steroids. However, placebo-controlled study of testosterone did not show a statistically significant increase in indicators of anger or aggressive behavior. To measure aggressive behavior used a variety of tools, and it is possible that self-administered questionnaires were not sensitive enough to detect small but significant changes in aggression. It is noticed that a small number of participants in controlled studies have demonstrated a marked increase in aggression indicators at supraphysiological doses of testosterone, but the majority of participants have shown little change, or lack thereof. It is possible that higher doses of androgenic steroids provoke a reaction of anger in a subgroup of patients with pre-existing psychopathology.
Purpose supraphysiological doses (600 mg / week), testosterone enanthate healthy young men is associated with significant increases aggressiveness compared with placebo. Doses of testosterone that can substitute equal or average were slightly higher, did not cause significant changes in the aggressive response. In this study, participants were asked to play a game against an imaginary opponent (participants did not know that the opponent was fictional) in which it was possible to press A for financial reward or key in which to withdraw money from an imaginary opponent (aggressive response). Even though the aim of the game was to achieve the highest cash prize and the best strategy for this was pressing A, participants who received supraphysiological doses (600 mg / week) T enanthate. The selected key with a higher frequency (for punishment imaginary opponent), and. thus we had higher response aggressive than those. who received lower doses of testosterone or did not receive it.
Assigned into 17-alkylated androgens have also been associated with insulin resistance. impaired glucose tolerance. There are concerns about the potential long-term effects on the risk of prostate disease and the cardiovascular system, but the long-term effects of supraphysiological doses of anabolic steroids known. Reported an increase in left ventricular mass among individuals using anabolic steroids; it is unknown whether the increase in left ventricular mass of beneficial or harmful.
Soreness and an increase of breast ( “wolf nipple” on the street jargon) are often associated with the use of anabolic steroids flavoring. For athletes, it is not unusual to use aromatase inhibitors or antagonists of estrogen in combination with anabolic increase to prevent petty glands.
Appointment androgenic steroid inhibits the production of endogenous testosterone and semen through the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.Men who use anabolic steroids may suffer reduced fertility or infertility. After cessation of administration of exogenous androgen recovery hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis can take a period of time from weeks to months, depending on the dose, the duration of androgen. After discontinuation of anabolic steroids circulating testosterone levels are very low, these patients may experience disturbing symptoms of androgen deficiency, including loss of sexual desire and function, low mood and hot flashes. Some men who find this intolerable withdrawal symptoms, again beginning to use androgenic steroids, reinforcing the vicious circle of abuse or withdrawal symptoms and dependence. Another hope for nonprescription use of aromatase inhibitors, or hCG, illegally acquired, based on the popular notion, widespread in educational institutions, that these agents can accelerate the recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, although there is no evidence to support this premise.Long-term suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and its accompanying risk of dependence – a serious complication of the use of androgenic steroids, which has not been widely appreciated.
Self-holding intramuscular injection increases the risk of infection. M yshechnogo abscess and even sepsis. Reported HIV transmission among people who use anabolic steroids, apparently because of the general use of a needle or inadequately sterilized needles and syringes.
Excessive muscle hypertrophy without a commensurate adaptation of the surrounding tendons and connective tissue can lead to the risk of damage and tendon rupture.as well as unusual stress joints in athletes who use anabolic steroids.
In addition, 90% of users of anabolic steroids, additional drugs abuse. Some of these drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamines and ephedra, can have potentially serious medical complications.
Detection of illegal anabolic steroids
The use of synthetic anabolic steroids banned at the Olympics in 1974. Although the first detection of androgenic steroids in urine by radioimmunoassay techniques have been used since 1981 accredited laboratory using a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, or – in some cases – liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy to identify those anabolics, which can not be detected with gas chromatography or are thermolabile. To improve the sensitivity of GC samples mot be further processed.Thus, the introduction of the silyl group is normally used for the analysis of samples derivatization androgen steroids; This reaction converts the polar groups (hydroxyl and ketone groups) in the less polar trimethylsilyl esters, which improves the signal to noise ratio. Also, since the late 1990s. introduction of mass spectroscopy and high-resolution tandem “mass spectroscopy, chromatography ‘to further improve the sensitivity of detection methods androgenic steroids.
To detect the use of testosterone used for analysis of testosterone epitestosterone ratio combined with isotope ratio using an oxidizing slektroskopii mass. This ratio is generally in the urine is less than 6: 1, and is a constant for each individual. There are genetic differences in this relationship. Appointment of exogenous testosterone increases the urinary excretion of testosterone glucuronide and increases the ratio. Ratio greater than 6: 1 suspect on the use of anabolic steroids. Large ratios require previous study or additional urine samples taken at a time interval. If a high ratio due to genetic variation, then all the samples obtained from the subject will have a higher ratio. The increased ratio in these samples compared with the previous values are regarded as a positive test.
If the test results in the testosterone to epitestosterone ratio of abnormal and require the use of exogenous hormones, it requires additional confirmation through the use of gas chromatography isotope ratio determination of the oxidative mass spectroscopy. This method is based on measurement of the carbon isotope ratio C13 / C12 of testosterone. In nature, there is 1.1% carbon in the form of C13. However, during the chemical synthesis of hormone C13 carbons react slower than C12 atoms. That is why synthetic testosterone similarly has lower C13 / C12 than the standard reference gas. During the process, gas chromatography isotope ratio determining the oxidative mass spectroscopy steroids are separated by gas chromatography and oxidized to carbon monoxide in the combustion chamber. The ratio of C02 to C13 (molecular weight 45) and C02 to C12 (molecular weight 44) is monitored by determining the ratio of the mass spectrometer isotopes and calculate value. A negative value c1, along with a high ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone involves administration of exogenous testosterone.
Collecting samples for doping test
The procedure for collection and transportation of doping tests of samples is carried out according to strict rules, which were established by sports organizations.Typically, each urine sample collected under the direct supervision of an accredited observer, is divided into two parts (A and B samples) and transported to the testing laboratory under protection. If Sample A is positive, then analyze the sample B in the presence of an athlete or an authorized representative of the athlete. If the sample is also positive in doping with anabolic steroids confirm and sports organization can impose punitive sanctions.