Suppression and recovery of natural testosterone production

testosterone productionOne of the most significant side effects of anabolic / androgenic steroids (AAS) is to suppress the natural production of testosterone (testosterone – the most active of androgens – male sex hormone secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes). There is no way to avoid this problem entirely, but it can be minimized, and normalize natural testosterone after a cycle fast enough. In this paper we consider the causes testosterone suppression and recovery methods presently known.

Doug hypothalamic – pituitary – testes. In order to understand the mechanism of inhibition of testosterone production, we must first understand what is and how it is managed.

The general picture is as follows.
The hypothalamus, located in the brain receives a variety of input signals, for example, the levels of various hormones, and decides whether or not to increase the production of sex hormones. If hormone levels at the input high, for example, high Induject 250 (testosterone mix) levels of estrogen (estrogen is a group of female sex hormones are synthesized in the female body ovaries and regulate specific sexual functions. Estrogens, there are two (both women and men). The main and most powerful of them -. 17-beta estradiol men it is obtained from testosterone, Leydig cells emitted by the enzymatic conversion of Sertoli cells) or androgen, or both, the hypothalamus “decides” that generally need to reduce or prohibit the production of sex hormones.. But if hormone levels are low at the inlet, the hypothalamus may “decide” what is necessary to increase the production of sex hormones.
It turned out that not only the hypothalamus responds to the current levels of the hormones, but also on the past values ​​of hormone levels, ie It is a kind of “story” hormone levels.

The hypothalamus itself can not produce hormones, instead, it produces luteinizing releasing hormone (LHRH), also known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). It stimulates the pituitary gland, also located in the brain (Fig. 1). Pituitary LHRH uses as one of the signals in deciding how much of luteinizing hormone (LH) produced. Proper response depends on having a sufficient number and activity of receptors in the pituitary gland to LHRH. These receptors must be activated to produce LH. The pituitary also uses sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) levels, current and past (history), to address how much LH to produce.
Some aspects of the pituitary specific behavior. For example, too high a level of LHRH lead to downregulation of pituitary LHRH receptors, with the Bodybuilder sex result that very high levels of LHRH logically would result in high levels of testosterone production, actually lowers its production. Another quirk is that, while the high estrogen levels lead to a decrease in LH, still some estrogen needed to maintain the normal amount in the pituitary LHRH receptors. So that the very low and very high levels of estrogen can decrease LH production, and ultimately testosterone.

Further completion LH, produced by the pituitary gland stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, they (which is synthesized by the Leydig cells in the testes).Here, the amount of LH – the main factor, and higher completion LH, the more testosterone will produce.

The reasons for the suppression of natural testosterone.

So, in the previous chapter shows that the main reasons for the production of testosterone suppression, while taking AAS are overvalued level of synthetic androgens (AAS binds to androgen receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland like natural testosterone), and, if used flavoring AAS excessive levels of estrogen, which is linked with appropriate receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and inhibit pituitary LH, resulting in no testicular stimulation and the synthesis of testosterone in the Leydig cells of the testes is suppressed.
This is the main cause of testosterone suppression.

It is surprising that many bodybuilders believe that high levels of estrogens, obtained by flavoring AAS, is the only reason for the suppression and blocking estrogen, they think they can avoid rejection. From the previous chapter it is clear that this is not so.
The practice is not at variance with the theory.
For example, analyze the level of testosterone in the blood of people who, together with AAS (in common dosages) took Orimeten as antiaromatase and Clomid as an anti-estrogen. As a result, the levels of estrogenovbyli normal, but nevertheless testosterone levels fell to zanacheniyu 1/10 on initial values.

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There are several substances that somehow can affect the production of testosterone.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)  – a hormone that is produced when testosterone levels konvertatsiiizbytochnogo. Its level depends on the individual, but usually if prohibit conversion of testosterone to estrogen (eg by Anti-Aromatase), the excess testosterone is converted to DHT more.
It is found that too DHT causes suppression of testosterone.

Progesterone  – a hormone produced by the female body as follows: 4zheltoe body that has developed on the site of proovulirovavshego follicle produces progesterone, which provides the functionality of endometrial changes, necessary for the development of the embryo in it.  Progesterone  – may be the cause of suppression when used for a long time man. Paradoxically, when using short, it can be a stimulator of testosterone production.

Beta agonists  (eg clenbuterol) is a kind of a stimulator of testosterone production.

Opioids  – natural endorphins are substances suppressing testosterone production, however, when receiving Nubain (synthetic opiate) that is both an agonist / antagonist of opioid receptors can block this inhibition.

It is noticed that prolactin and melatonin also affect the production of testosterone, but manipulation with them does not seem useful in bodybuilding.

How to avoid the suppression of testosterone production when using AAS.

As we have already established in the previous chapter, classic cycles AAS taken around the clock (eg injectable testosterone esters) necessarily lead to the suppression of the production of LH and therefore to suppress the production of testosterone.

There are ways to avoid this? There are three of them:

1) To avoid the use of steroids vysokoandrogennyh clock.
This can be accomplished, for example, using Oral AAS (whose half-life of a few hours) only half the dose in the morning (for example, 9-00), and the remaining half of the dose at about noon (at 12-00 ). Even 100 mg per day may be used methandrostenolone this method with slight suppression of testosterone production.
This is due to the fact that high eroven exogenous (obtained from outside) testosterone kept for 3-4 hours, and this time is not dostatochnodlya order to start lowering mechanisms natural testosterone level (probably due to the fact that the pituitary and hypothalamus responds not only to the current level of androgen and testosterone levels for the past and the 4-O-clockwise race roughly the hormonal endocrine system is ignored) the problem with this approach is that the effect on muscle growth is very good in comparison to when the steroid in the blood is constant.

2) Use the number and kind of AAS that will not znachitelnopodavlyat testosterone production. Primobolan® at doses of 200-400 mg per week is suitable for this purpose. However, in this case, the results of this cycle will not be comparable to the more significant cycle. Testosterone esters (eg drugs such as Sustanon, Omnadren, testenat, Testosterone cypionate, etc.) and Nadrolona Decanoate (Retabolil, Deca Durabolin) significantly suppress the production of testosterone, even at a dose of 100 mg per week, so that the use of these drugs in low dosage does not make sense: and choke the production of testosterone and very little will be achieved.

3) In principle, one could use anti-androgens, but it completely stops any growth results in mass and strength.

In those cycles where AAS doses high enough to effectively increase the results seen an interesting thing. During the first two weeks of the cycle only the activity of the hypothalamus is suppressed, and it produces much less LHRH as a result of high levels of AAS.
The activity of the pituitary gland at this time are not inhibited at all: in fact, the receptor LHRH-sensitive, and will respond to LHRH (if it is produced) even more than usual. However, after two weeks, the pituitary gland activity is also suppressed, and even if LHRH is made, the pituitary will produce little or no produce LH.V this case there comes a deeper type of arc suppression work. Apparently, after the suppression of the point, there is no next point where suppression again becomes deeper. However, with time the restoration is complicated.
In practice there is no difference between using AAS for 3 weeks and 8 weeks: recovery will take the same time. Between 8 and 12 weeks, it becomes increasingly likely that the recovery will be slower and more difficult, even though the 12-ti-week cycle typically does not create too many problems, and the recovery will take only a few weeks. Cycles more than 12 – weeks could create significant problems with the subsequent recovery.

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It is not known exactly what changes occur in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland when the courses are too long, but in practice it turns out that the more the cycle comes to 8 weeks, the longer and harder the subsequent recovery. It is suspected that there are any irregularities in the mechanisms of secretion of LHRH by the hypothalamus.

Consider drugs that may be useful in the reduction of the testosterone level.

Orimeten (Cytadren).
This drug can be used to reduce the conversion of testosterone type legkoaromatiziruyuschihsya AAS esters methandrostenolone, Equipoise (Ganabol) and others. Estrogen. If estrogen levels did not rise during the cycle, the recovery will be faster after the cycle, although this is not strictly scientific dokazano.Esli testosterone esters were used prior to the end of the cycle, some levels they will remain for weeks, and prolonged use of Orimetena help prevent conversion to estrogen and thus reduce the suppression. The best example of dosing, according to many “gurus” should be welcome? Tablets (125 mg) in the morning and then twelve hours more? Tablets (125 mg). Using more Orimetena can lead to adverse effects on the production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex, with subsequent cortisol rebound after drug withdrawal. Some individuals suffer from the side effects of the drug: the feeling of tiredness and laziness, or sleepiness, but it is very rare for such cases dose.
In Moscow pharmacies Orimeten costs an average of $ 95 for 100 tablets of 250 mg each.

it fulfills the same purpose as the Orimeten, but without the possible side effects mentioned above. Arimidex, however, it is worth even more.
In its price Moscow pharmacies average $ 230 for 28 tablets of 1 mg each.
Typical dosing method Arimidex – 1 mg per day. The selected dosage time does not matter, since the drug has a long half-life.

Clomid (Clomid):
Once the cycle is over, Clomid at 50 mg per day is usually very effective in restoring natural testosterone production. It acts by blocking estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus and pituitary. If androgen levels are not high (which is usually a few weeks after the cycle), it is enough to normalize the production of at least normal or, often, even higher amounts of LH. During the cycle Clomid can not prevent testosterone suppression, although some think that he could make it easier to recover afterwards, although it is not dokazano.Esli no opportunity to buy the best way – Arimidex, Clomid is useful as an anti-estrogen for insurance against gynecomastia and excessive delays in the water during the cycle . However, results on Clomid reduces cycle of – because it reduces the synthesis of liver IGF1, provoked taken AAS.
Clomid cost in the pharmacies Moscow average $ 5 for 10 tablets of 50 mg each.

Nolvadex (Tamoxifen):
It works in the same way as Clomid, but not so in respect efektiven recovery. It is better to use it only as an antiestrogen for insurance against gynecomastia and excessive delays in the water during the cycle if indeed there is a real need. Nolvadex further reduces cycle results on the same reason as Clomid.
The cost is not high and Nolvadex lower than Clomid several times.

HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin):
He does nothing in terms of reducing depression fuktsii hypothalamus and pituitary gland. He acts like LH, and causes the testicles to produce testosterone. This is useful for preventing testicular atrophy during the cycle. For this purpose, it is better to be used every third week of the cycle. The best method of dosing is to use small doses often: 1000-2000 units per day, and reasonably efficient. Large doses of HCG can result in downregulation of LH receptors in the testes, and therefore counterproductive to. It should be noted that HCG can cause gynecomastia development, if there is a predisposition to it. Poetomumozhno parallel use of anti-estrogens (Clomid, Nolvadex) or better antiaromatase (Arimedeks, Orimeten).
Price Chorionic Gonadotropin domestic proizvodstvav Moscow pharmacies is $ 8 per 5,000 units.

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Clenbuterol (Spiropent):
it is possible that beta agonists can assist in vosstanovlenii.Klenbuterol can be used after cycle 2 – 6 tablets per den.Luchshe start with 2 TB. and gradually increase the dose.
Tablets 20 mg. Cost Moskovka pharmacies Spiropenta sostavlyaetv average of $ 5 per 50 tablets. Ephedrine in Russia can only get through the drug dealers or to synthesize, because in a drugstore it is sold on a strict recipe.

Oral AAS with a short half-life  (eg methandrostenolone):
They do not help restore natural testosterone production, but if not used all day, and only in the morning, it will support dial the cycle of AAS muscle mass, virtually preventing testosterone recovery (due to, more . explained above)
methandrostenolone price on the black market 4 – $ 5 per 100 tablets in Moscow.

Tribulus (Tribulus), Tribestan (Tribestan):
this drug is practically effective.

Melatonin (Melatonin):
Useful for those who have broken during recovery sleep. If you have poor sleep testosterone production decreases. If sleep is not disturbed, the drug will not give anything to recover.

General advice in building AAS cycles, followed by reduction in testosterone production.

The best two-week cycles are cycles or using short-AAS (eg Testosterone Propionate and Oral AAS), which allow very fast restores (less than one week) cycles or approximately 6 to 10 weeks, which is usually effective and voostanovlenie after them is not very long. Cycles in the range of 3-5 weeks are less effective because they are less simultaneously to result efektivnost than cycles 6-10 weeks, and still have the same recovery period, as the latter. If you use testosterone esters, the minimum dose, which is to adhere to, is 500 mg per week. For many people it will be about 1000 mg per week. At low doses it will be suppressed own testosterone production, aeffekt nevertheless be minimal. Naturally these rekomendatsiipo dosages relative. They relate primarily to experienced ambitious bodybuilders competitive level, who spent more than one AAS.Novichkam course is not worth communicate with testosterone esters.

If the cycle lasts 8 weeks or longer, it makes sense to use HCG during the cycle if possible as described above. HCG should not be used during the recovery itself, because it will increase the level of testosterone and estrogen, which will continue to inhibit the activity of the hypothalamus and pituitary.

Use Clomid should start (if it is not used during the cycle), as soon as the AAC levels drop enough that recovery was possible. This is approximately two weeks after the last administration of the long-range testosterone esters, taken in reasonable doses type 500 – 1000 mg per week.
Use Clomid should start with 300 mg on the first day (50 mg six times) to rapidly obtain the desired blood levels of the drug, and then maintain them in a dose of 50 mg per day. This is necessary because the half-life of the drug. Therapy should be continued for as long as the user is satisfied that his testosterone levels returned to normal and restored sizes testikul.V most cases, enough for 2-3 weeks. But there are exceptions, in this case the use of Clomid 6 weeks, it is necessary to make a break for a few weeks and see what happens. If the recovery is not complete, it is necessary to continue. Use Clomid pretty safe, even for a long time (years).

If used silnoaromatiziruyuschiesya AAS antiaromatase useful another 3 weeks after the last dose or 4 weeks AAC, AAC if the dosage was high (gram per week).